富二代f2抖音

After Extensive Data Gathering and Analysis—Plus a Worldwide Media Frenzy—NASA’s Famed Twins Study has Begun to Yield Results

最污直播app

It has been called the most comprehensive analysis of individual human beings ever conducted in scientific history. In March 2015, astronaut Scott Kelly rode a Soyuz spacecraft to the International Space Station and proceeded to spend 340 days in orbit as part of an in-depth study of the long-term effects of space travel on the human body. As rare and valuable as that effort was—representing the longest-ever space mission for a NASA astronaut—it was all the more remarkable thanks to a tantalizing offer from Kelly’s identical twin brother: Mark Kelly, himself a retired astronaut. Since Mark was staying on terra firma, he volunteered to serve as an experimental control, allowing scientists to compare two genetically identical men—one on Earth, the other in zero gravity some 220 miles above it, traveling at almost five miles per second.

草莓视频

The cover of Science featuring the Twins Study.

During Scott’s time on the space station (as well as six months before and after his mission), the brothers underwent physical and cognitive testing and contributed numerous blood, urine, saliva and fecal samples for analysis. Dubbed the NASA Twins Study, the effort comprised 10 interconnected research projects—on such topics as cognition, cardiovascular health, genomic changes, immune response, and the composition of gut, skin and oral bacteria—funded by a total of $1.5 million in agency grants and involving dozens of investigators around the country and abroad.

One of those projects, which focused on how Scott’s environment affected how his genes were expressed and regulated, was led by Weill Cornell Medicine’s Dr. Chris Mason—and along with the nine others, it would make headlines around the world. In April, the Twins Study landed on the cover of the journal Science, which featured a 20-page article summing up the results—the first publication of what’s expected to be many, as researchers continue to parse a mother lode of data. “Overall, the Twins Study is a tour de force about how the body’s adaptability extends to outer space,” says Dr. Mason, the WorldQuant Foundation Research Scholar in physiology and biophysics and an associate professor of neuroscience, of physiology and biophysics, and of computational genomics in computational biomedicine. “The vast majority of changes we saw returned to normal—but about 8 or 9% remained. So it also shows that the body was still to some degree adapting to terrestrial life, even six months after Scott Kelly returned to Earth.”

Among the Mason Lab’s findings were that thousands of genes became active in Scott while remaining dormant in Mark—an effect that became more marked the longer Scott stayed in space. Those genes included ones that play a role in repairing damaged DNA—which may reflect the fact that while in space, Scott was exposed to nearly 50 times as much radiation as his brother was on Earth. Also active were genes related to inflammation, which could be due to the inherent stresses of space travel on the human body; these include the effects of being in zero gravity, such as fluid shifts and bone loss. For Dr. Francine Garrett-Bakelman, who was the first author on the Science paper, the findings made sense. “I’m a physician-scientist, and as a physician, I thought, ‘Yes, an astronaut is under significant stress,’” says Dr. Garrett-Bakelman, who completed her research and medical postgraduate training at Weill Cornell Medicine (where she was an instructor and an assistant attending physician at NewYork-Presbyterian/Weill Cornell Medical Center while working in Dr. Mason’s lab and that of Dr. Ari Melnick, the Gebroe Family Professor of Hematology/Oncology).  She is now an assistant professor of medicine and of biochemistry and molecular genetics at the University of Virginia School of Medicine, as well as an adjunct assistant professor of medicine at Weill Cornell Medicine. “He gets launched into space, spends a year in a foreign environment, then comes down to Earth subjected to a tremendous amount of g-forces. It tells us that the human body is resilient and responding normally to a stressful situation.”

久草视频

MIRROR IMAGES: Twins Mark (left) and Scott Kelly. Opposite page: Scott on a spacewalk—his third—in December 2015. Credit: Robert Markowitz/ NASA / Johnson Space Center

As Dr. Mason notes, a particularly striking finding was the extent to which Scott’s immune system was on high alert once he went to space: every type of immune cell the researchers measured was active at levels that are practically unheard of. And in fact, Dr. Mason says, the response was even more dramatic when Scott came home. “In his memoir, he says that when he landed back on Earth he didn’t feel well—and we could see why very clearly, in his blood work and gene expression data,” says Dr. Mason, who is also a cofounder, equity stakeholder and consultant for Onegevity Health, a company that provides a comprehensive molecular portrait and customized recommendations for an individual’s health based on integrated analysis of longitudinal blood, genetics and microbiome profiles. “There were all these markers for inflammation and for immune cells kicking into high gear. His body was basically having this moment of, ‘Wow, I’m back in gravity’—these markers in the bloodstream were sometimes 4,000% higher than normal. So we could see that while going to space was hard on the body, returning to gravity was, in some ways, even harder.”

One of the Twins Study’s most surprising discoveries related to telomeres, sections of DNA located at the ends of chromosomes. Normally, as people get older their telomeres get shorter—and researchers had expected to see that happen in space, possibly even faster due to stress and radiation exposure. But in fact—as an investigator at Colorado State University discovered and the Dr. Mason Lab confirmed with new DNA sequencing and analysis methods—Scott’s telomeres got longer, though they reverted to normal after he came home. Why? Researchers don’t yet know. “We need to do a lot more science on this,” says Dr. Cem Meydan, a research associate in the Dr. Mason Lab and a co-first author on the Science paper. “We need to find out why this is happening, and whether we can prevent it or study it for other health-related purposes, such as to fight cancer or aging.”

Dr. Mason and his colleagues emphasize that when it comes to understanding how the human body reacts to being in space, the Twins Study had an obvious and inherent limitation: it had only one subject who actually went aloft. Furthermore, says Dr. Garrett-Bakelman, “this was a single study of one white male; what happens in women, or in people from other racial or cultural backgrounds, we have no idea. Trying to infer anything at all is very difficult without having additional subjects’ data to look at.” And of course, given that the Kelly brothers were NASA’s first (and so far, only) identical twin astronauts, in many ways the study was a one-of-a-kind opportunity. “As a geneticist, I wish every person was a twin or a triplet so we could study them,” Dr. Mason says with a laugh. “It’s unclear if or when this will happen again. It’s going to be hard to match this study anytime soon.” Still, when it comes to figuring out whether humans could survive a mission to Mars or beyond, he and his colleagues call the study’s findings highly encouraging. “Obviously it’s a sample size of one, so it’s hard to make generalized statements—but if we saw similar results in multiple people, I think it bodes well for long-term space travel,” Dr. Meydan says. “Most of the changes we saw can potentially be targeted; in the next five or 10 years, we could develop drugs, interventions or other technology such as shielding for radiation or clothing for reversing fluid shifts in the body.”

Dr. Mason also points out that the Twins Study could have benefits beyond the findings themselves; some of the procedures and analytic techniques its researchers developed could be a boon to terrestrial medicine. “It forced us to be nimble with limited numbers of cells and to sequence really quickly,” he says, noting that their methods could inform rapid diagnosis of infectious pathogens or genetic analysis of a cancer patient’s tumor. Working with some of the same collaborators as in the Twins Study, Dr. Mason’s team also helped pioneer the first-ever DNA sequencing experiments on the International Space Station. Plus, Dr. Garrett-Bakelman says, the study stands as a prime example of how broad scientific questions can be answered through large-scale collaboration. “If you think about it, there were over 80 authors on the Science paper—from multiple institutions, locations and countries—in addition to all the support staff at NASA that helped us do this,” she says. “It was truly a challenging project to complete, and it wouldn’t have been possible without that entire team. That’s how these projects should be done: you bring in expertise from many different areas, think outside the box and piece things together that you would have never thought about unless you were with all those people in the same room.”

With the overarching Science paper out, the Mason Lab has another half dozen publications in progress—continuing to explore what research associate and co-author Daniela Bezdan calls “the most comprehensive and integrated molecular view to date of how a human responds to spaceflight.” For Bezdan and many of her colleagues, just working on a space-related project was a wish come true. The first time she got an e-mail from NASA, she was so excited that she took a screenshot of the header; now, every 10th message in her in-box is from the agency. “We can contribute to making space exploration possible, which could be important for the survival of the human species; it’s something bigger than ourselves,” Bezdan says. “When I think of space travel, I think of three compartments: we are now describing what happens in space; the next step is to understand it—and the third step is to use it for our advantage.”

In Scott Kelly’s 2017 memoir—entitled “Endurance: A Year in Space, a Lifetime of Discovery”—he describes his record-setting tenure on the space station, the longest-duration mission for a NASA astronaut. Toward the end of the book, he contemplates his contribution to the Twins Study, noting that he expects to continue to be a test subject for the rest of his life. “Science is a slow-moving process,” he writes, “and it may be years before any great understanding or breakthrough is reached from the data. Sometimes the questions science asks are answered by other questions. This doesn’t particularly bother me—I will leave the science up to the scientists. For me, it’s worth it to have contributed to advancing human knowledge, even if it’s only a step on a much longer journey.”

This story first appeared in Weill Cornell Medicine, Summer 2019

Weill Cornell Medicine
Office of External Affairs
1300 York Avenue
Box 314
New York, NY 10065 Phone: (646) 962-9476

尤蜜视频app 梦露直播app ML聚合 小狐仙直播app 成版人音色短视频app 花姬 食色短视频 千层浪直播 浪浪视频 么么直播 小蝌蚪视频 lutube 荔枝 久草app 月光直播app 蚪音app bobo直播app 春水堂app 盘她app 浪浪视频app 桃花直播 f2富二代app 蝶恋花app 棉花糖直播app 青草视频app 玉米视频 粉色app 暖暖直播 富二代f2抖音下载app视频免费最新 MM直播app 97豆奶视频下载app视频免费最新 樱桃 微杏app 直播盒子app 探花直播app 樱花雨直播下载app视频免费最新 九尾狐直播 黄瓜app 小奶猫app 佳丽直播视频 抖阴 葫芦娃 彩色直播 夜狼直播app 好嗨哟直播 大小姐直播app f2富二代 小宝贝直播 ML聚合直播下载app视频免费最新 香蕉 陌秀直播 d2天堂 污直播app 千层浪 夜狼直播 初见直播app 蜜桃直播app 可乐视频app 蜜橙视频app 桃花 avgo 蜜桃 JAV名优馆下载app视频免费最新 蝶恋花app 雨云直播 斗艳直播 享爱直播app 小宝贝直播app 遇见直播 千层浪 荔枝视频app 柚子直播app 蚪音 卡哇伊直播 彩云直播app 月亮视频app 冈本 依恋直播app 盘她 铁牛视频app 水晶直播 杏趣直播app 成版人抖音富二代app ML聚合直播app 猫咪软件 快喵 香蕉app 91香蕉视频 午夜直播间 恋人直播 西瓜直播app 蝶恋花直播 男人本色西瓜视频 梦幻直播 萝卜视频 咪哒直播 尤蜜视频app Kitty直播 黄瓜app 樱花app 69视频 swag视频app 香蜜直播app 望月直播 左手视频app 盘他app 月色直播app AVBOBO 小可爱app 番茄社区 成版人茄子视频 福利直播 小优app 蝶恋花直播 小狐仙直播 米老鼠直播 香草视频app 花姬 花狐狸直播app 彩云直播app 套路直播app 泡芙 蝴蝶直播app 丝瓜app 棉花糖直播app 丝瓜视频污app 朵朵直播app 香蕉直播 成版人快手app 红玫瑰直播 f2富二代app 花姿直播app 咪咪直播app 雨云直播 7秒鱼直播下载app视频免费最新 樱桃直播app 宅男之家 含羞草实验研究所app 青草视频app 91香蕉视频 蓝精灵直播 香蕉视频 金屋藏娇直播间app 成人快手app 后宫视频app 快猫app 柠檬视频 千层浪直播 雨云直播 微啪 向日葵 豆奶视频app health2app 草鱼 云雨直播app 茄子直播app 盘他app 盘她直播 菠萝蜜视频app 欢喜视频 皮卡丘直播 豆奶短视频app 小米粒直播app 富二代f2抖音下载app视频免费最新 花心直播app 月亮视频app 茶馆视频下载app视频免费最新 樱花雨直播app 橙子直播 茶馆视频app 青青草 黄页荔枝app health2下载app视频免费最新 迷雾直播app 夜巴黎直播app 樱花 荔枝app 和欢视频app 金鱼直播app 丝瓜草莓视频 茄子直播app 大番号app 最污直播app 花粥直播app 91视频 丝瓜视频污 小怪兽直播 蜜桃直播 菠萝菠萝蜜视频app 萝卜视频app 向日葵app 香蜜直播app health2app 梦露直播 夜狼直播 夜猫视频app 考拉直播 69热app 午夜直播app 望月 小优 薰衣草直播app 黄瓜视频人 樱花app 黄瓜视频人app 小可爱app 花粥直播app ML聚合 小蝌蚪视频app 嘿嘿连载 花姿app 梦幻直播下载app视频免费最新 柠檬直播 草莓直播app MM直播下载app视频免费最新 秀色直播 青青草 午夜直播间app 草鱼app d2天堂app 九尾狐视频app 小花螺直播app 夜魅直播app 久草视频 酷咪直播 陌秀直播app 花仙子直播app 迷雾直播app 秋葵视频 年轻人片app 夜狼直播 iAVBOBO下载app视频免费最新 初见直播 水仙直播 考拉直播app d2天堂 青青草app 媚妹秀 成版人抖音富二代 芭乐视频 夜狼直播 含羞草视频 富二代f2抖音app 豆奶app 小米粒直播app 草莓直播app 春水堂app 橙子直播app 蜜桃app 泡芙 豆奶视频app 草榴视频app 逗趣直播 迷雾直播 卖肉直播 盘她s直播 宅男之家app 薰衣草直播 swag台湾 成人直播 草莓 初恋直播 迷雾直播 音色短视频app 尤蜜 bobo直播app 年华直播 妖妖直播app 福利直播app 午夜直播间app ML聚合 烟花巷app 榴莲视频 小公主直播 薰衣草直播 快猫 91直播 小优app 花样视频 冈本视频app Huluwaapp Avboboapp 鸭脖视频app 麻豆传媒映画 小宝贝直播 性直播app 榴莲视频 成版人快手app 朵朵直播app 猛虎视频app 杏花直播app 木瓜app 萝卜视频app 逗趣直播app 微啪 MM直播 小草视频app 番茄直播app 恋人直播app 豌豆直播 小天仙直播app 69热下载app视频免费最新 秋葵视频 樱花 盘她 Avnight下载app视频免费最新 69视频app 繁花直播app 梦幻直播app 91香蕉视频 樱花 遇见直播app 香蕉 光棍影院 繁花直播 食色app 望月直播app 泡芙短视频app 花椒直播app 午夜直播 比心直播 大西瓜视频app 樱花 夜巴黎直播 金屋藏娇直播间app 雨燕直播app 咪哒 仙人掌app 男人本色西瓜视频app 橘子视频app 茄子视频app 丝瓜 成人直播app 灭火卫视app 粉色 樱花app 草榴直播 食色短视频 七仙女直播 麻豆传媒视频app 夜巴黎直播app 秀色直播app 蓝精灵直播app 荔枝app 泡芙视频app Kitty直播app 樱桃 梦幻直播app 佳丽直播app 宅男之家 秀色直播 可乐视频 ML聚合下载app视频免费最新 恋人直播app 6房间视频直播app 小天仙直播 咪哒直播 花仙子直播app 七秒鱼 红玫瑰直播下载app视频免费最新 黄瓜视频人 木瓜app 柠檬直播app 木瓜下载app视频免费最新 富二代f2抖音下载app视频免费最新 蓝颜 swag台湾 欢喜视频 趣播app 东京视频 朵朵直播app 美梦视频 云上花直播app 9uu 主播福利app 初恋视频app 妖妖直播 烟花巷直播 蝴蝶直播 美梦视频app 快播破解 泡芙app 免费黃色直播app 成版人音色短视频app 草鱼app 丝瓜视频app 爱爱视频 暖暖直播 免费黃色直播app 小天仙直播app iavbobo下载app视频免费最新 午夜直播 卖肉直播 幸福宝 69热app 香草视频app 木瓜下载app视频免费最新 云上花直播下载app视频免费最新 茶馆视频下载app视频免费最新 小怪兽app 9uu 含羞草视频 棉花糖直播app 9uu 秋葵视频app 樱花视频app 米老鼠直播 荔枝app BB直播 合欢视频